The present perfect continuous is used for an action that started in the past and continues to the present.  In other words, the action is still ongoing.  The present perfect can also be used, but can sometimes be confusing because it is also used in 2 other situations.  Therefore, it’s a good idea if you have a choice between the present perfect and the present perfect continuous that you choose the present perfect continuous.


by John Denver

an American singer and songwriter who became one of the most popular artist of the 1970s.  He was a humanitarian and environmentalist who loved nature and the outdoors.  This is the title song from his 7th album entitled “Farewell Andromeda” released in 1973.


If you want your writing and especially your speaking to get better, learn how to use reported speech.  It raises your level of English a lot, and you’ll know this grammar probably better than most English speakers. Reported speech, or indirect speech, is used when you are reporting (telling someone) what someone else said.  This is different than direct speech where you use quotation marks.  Let’s look at the difference:


by Anna Nalick

an American singer/songwriter born and raised in California.   This is the title song from her second album, which was released March 25, 2008.


apologize:  to say you’re sorry
He apologized for not remembering her birthday.
I want you to apologize to your mother for making this mess.



Nick:  You look like you’re walking on air.  What’s up?


by Andy Puddicombe


Reported speech can be more complicated than I showed you on the Reported speech – basic page.  For example, there are more words that change besides pronouns, possessive adjectives, and verb tenses.    Place words and time words also change. 



Ron:  Meg, I’m so sorry.  I completely forgot about our lunch date yesterday, but I’ll make it up to you, I promise.  It’s just that I had a really important meeting yesterday morning, and it went so well, we all went for lunch.


annoy: to bother (someone)
When students talk during a lesson, it really annoys the teacher.
The flies at the beach were annoying us so much that we had to leave.

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