Adv.clause-adv

•  Adverb clauses of time starting with after, before, since, when, and while can be reduced, but only if the subjects in the adverb clause and in the independent clause are the same.  When they are the same, you can drop the subject and the verb BE (or if there is no BE, change the verb to the -ing form) in the adverb clause.

Examples:

I fell asleep while I was watching TV.

I fell asleep while watching TV.

 

Since he came back to town, he has seen all his old friends.

Since coming back to town, he has seen all his old friends.

 

Paul celebrated with his friends after he took his final exam.

Paul celebrated with his friends after taking his final exam.

 

Before she went to bed, Alice brushed her teeth.

Before going to bed, Alice brushed her teeth.

 

When you are standing in line, start talking with someone to pass the time.

[The missing subject in a command is "you." (..., you start talking...)]

When standing in line, start talking with someone to pass the time.

 

•  When reducing an adverb clause of reason starting with because, since, or as, you must drop the marker.  This type of adverb clause is most often used at the beginning of a sentence.

Examples:

Because he forgot his password, Sam was unable to use the bank machine.

Forgetting his password, Sam was unable to use the bank machine.

 

Since she hadn’t slept much the night before, Sue was tired most of the day .

Not having slept much the night before, Sue was tired most of the day.

[In compound verb tenses like this, put the first verb (have) in the -ing form]

 

As we are all together today, we should do something memorable.

Being all together today, we should do something memorable.

[When the only verb is BE, change it to -ing]

 

•  When reducing an adverb clause of time starting with while, you can drop it if you want to, but you don’t have to.

Example:

While we were walking to school, we saw a dog fight.

While walking to school, we saw a dog fight.

Walking to school, we saw a dog fight.

 

•  There are 6 prepositional phrases that function like adverb clauses but are followed by a noun and not a subject and verb.  The markers for these phrases are:

because of                on account of              despite

due to                         in spite of                     during

Examples:

They didn’t want to go for a bike ride because of the rain.

[Compare:  They didn’t want to go for a bike ride because it was raining.]

 

Due to the poor economic forecast, we put our money in gold.

[Compare:  Because the economic forecast was poor, we put our money in gold.]

 

The farmer lost his corn crop on account of the drought.

[Compare:  The farmer lost his corn crop because there was a drought.]

 

In spite of their best effort, the team lost the final game.

[Compare:  Although they played their best, the team lost the final game.]

 

He unplugged his iPod despite instructions not to.

[Compare:  He unplugged his iPod even though he had instructions not to.]

 

During the lecture after lunch, Paul fell asleep.

[Compare: While he was listening to the lecture after lunch, Paul fell asleep.]

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